NIC reforms for the self-employed

December 18, 2023

NIC reforms for the self-employed

National insurance contribution (NIC) changes for the self-employed announced in the Autumn Statement come in from 6 April 2024 and will be welcome news. But the reforms don’t go far enough to offset the continuing cost of frozen tax thresholds.

NICs classes

The self-employed currently pay two classes of NICs:

  • Class 2 NICs are at a flat weekly rate, and it is these contributions that give entitlement to contributory benefits, such as the state pension (35 qualifying years being required to receive a full pension). Class 2 NICs are deemed to be paid if profits are between £6,725 and £12,570, and can be paid voluntarily if profits are lower.
  • Class 4 NICs are earnings related. The main rate of 9% is paid on profits between £12,570 and £50,270, with an additional rate of 2% on profits in excess of £50,270.

Class 2 voluntary only

From 6 April 2024, any self-employed person with profits of £6,725 or more will be entitled to contributory benefits without having to pay class 2 NICs – an annual saving of £179 for those who would otherwise have had to pay.

However, those with profits below £6,725, will still have to pay voluntarily if they wish to maintain access to contributory benefits.

Anyone with profits just below £6,725 might decide to forego claiming sufficient expenses to meet the income limit, although the overall tax impact of doing so must be considered.

Class 4 reduced

From the same date, the main rate of class 4 NICs will be reduced from 9% to 8%, representing a maximum annual saving of £377. The additional rate of 2% is unchanged.

There are also no changes to the thresholds of £12,570 and £50,270, although this will be beneficial for anyone with profits in excess of £50,270 – it means no increase to the amount of profits charged at the main rate rather than at the lower additional rate.

HMRC’s guide to voluntary national insurance can be found here.

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